There are a number of sites with challenges- once you complete a challenge you can often view other solutions, and many of these sites (not all) support multiple languages.
The Python Challenge
Even the "Python Challenge" tasks can be solved with another language since all you are looking ...
A loaf of bread, a knife, a jar of peanut butter and a jar of jelly. Write an algorithm to build a PB&J. Have one of the kids follow the literal direction written by a different kid. This project have been a favorite starter for algorithms for 30 years.
Based on clarification in comments, Algorithms 4th ed. by Sedgewick and Wayne seems to meet your criteria. The book itself doesn't seem to have an official PDF version (I haven't searched for unofficial ones of dubious provenance), but the code is available both at the linked page and on Github, and includes solutions to selected exercises.
Late answer: I agree greatly with @igordsm's response above (emphasize unit testing with more detailed feedback, not just a "pass/fail" output), so this should be considered in support of that.
I agree with the comment by @pojo-guy that the specification seems "unnecessarily convoluted and artificial". Having read the specifications for the 1st and 4th ...