I wanted to analyze the history of educational programming languages and their evolution up to the present (and probably make the presentation out of it for middle schoolers). Can you recommend any supportive materials with deep historical retrospective analysis since 1960s (Logo Turtle, Squeak etc.)?
I'd suggest you reconsider. To understand e.g. why Pascal is a nice teaching language you need to have a decent background in programming languages, some notion of teaching programming (the misconceptions by learners are often way, way different than you'd guess in your wildest nightmare), and hopefully some experience teaching.
Languages specifically designed for teaching are a wildly varied bunch, most never won any sort of wider traction. Or if they did, they soon outgrew the "to teach programming" range. Take a peek at BASIC and its recent incarnations (don't look like BASIC at all); languages like Pascal (designed to be easy to implement and teach); Logo and even (to some extent) Scheme are part of the flock.
I have a partial answer for you, about why BASIC and home computers in the early 1980's were so helpful to learning: it is how accessible everything was. A kid could look inside the case and see what the parts were, and even do things like plug in a new disk drive or something else hardware related. This is difficult to do now with a phone, tablet or laptop.
The BASIC interpreter was straightforward: it checked lines as you entered them and it ran the program. The realization that the interpreter was a program was startling and fascinating. A program is reading my keystrokes, and running my program!
The layer between what you could write in BASIC and how the hardware could be afffected was thin. It didn't take long to find out how much amusement a few POKE statements could generate. What was happening there?
The interpreter ran on top of another program: the operating system. At this point, the mystery was sufficiently weird and in your face that you either wanted to learn more, or veer off into something less arcane. It was a fast trip to the edge of the rabbit hole, and you could learn more or get off any place along the way.
I wrote programs on a DEC-10, Cyber 750, PDP-11s and other things, but these were not open-face like an Apple ][ or Atari 800 (it has 3 CPUs that all cooperate, somehow) or even a TRS-80 or PET. Without such accessibility early on in my learning environment, I might not have learned as much, as fast, as deeply, and so college and career would have started differently - probably less well. When we got back around to C with 68020 assembler to write parts of a compiler during my last year of college, it was home ground for me, but not so much many other students.
Perhaps new devices like the Raspberry PI are similar to 80's home PCs in some ways, but I haven't gotten my hands on one to know. If not, I think that the prospects for "learnable computing" are rather dimmer than they were in the bad old days. The important thing is the mystery behind the question: "How could a computer possibly work?" and how BASIC, the simple OS and hardware were low barriers to entry to that story.