I don't think this question can be answered in any meaningful way. There isn't a finite list of skills that you need to be a programmer, or that make you a better programmer.
Computer science is a huge field encompassing just about every job you can imagine, and each of those jobs requires a different skillset. No matter what your interests are, chances are you can find a place for yourself in the industry somewhere.
Skills that make one person a good programmer won't necessarily benefit another programmer. One programming job might require an artistic background, whereas another job might require a mathematics background, or a managerial background.
The best answer to this question is going to be very broad.
So, what makes a good programmer?
The ability to learn. Most programming is not actually writing code. Most programming is reading tutorials, running example code, and looking stuff up in documentation. Programming is more of a craft than people realize.
The ability to break things down into smaller pieces. Again, programmers don't sit down to code as soon as they're given a task. They have to spend a significant amount of time breaking the task down into smaller steps, and then taking those steps on one at a time.
The ability to ask questions. This might mean looking stuff up in the documentation, or on Google, or on Stack Overflow. It might mean asking a colleage or even a rubber duck.
The best software teams are comprised of a bunch of different people from a bunch of different backgrounds, with a bunch of different skills. Instead of trying to focus on a particular set of skills your students need, I'd recommend looking at the skills your students already have and helping them explore those skills in a computer science setting. Have a student who likes art? Cool, teach them about creative coding. Have a student interested in statistics? Teach them about data visualization. Have a student interested in mechanics? Teach them about robotics.
Don't ask what skills you need for computer science; ask what computer science you can do with your skills.